Es-Hail-2 Oscar-100                                                                


Es’hail-2 (QO-100) is a geostationary satellite in orbit at 25.9° East carrying amateur radio transponders.
It's reception footprint covers Africa, Europe, the Middle East, India, eastern Brazil and the west half of Russia/Asia.
A a joint project by the Qatar Satellite Company (Es'hailSat), the Qatar Amateur Radio Society (QARS) and AMSAT Deutschland (AMSAT-DL).



Es’hail-2 (QO-100) carries two amateur radio transponders, a vertical polarized narrow band linear transponder (downlink 10489.550 - 10489.800 MHz).
And a horizontally polarized wide band digital transponder for amateur digital TV DATV (downlink 10491.000 - 10499.000 MHz.).

Satellite Dish

For reception of Es’hail-2 (QO-100) you need a dish in size >40 - 80 cm for the Narrow Band.
A size between 80 - 1.20 cm or more for the Wide band transponder is needed.



Im using my old 1.50 Mtr Primefocus pointed to Astra 23 East for TV Reception.
But offset dishes work off course fine to.



Goobay LNB on the left/bottom so it points to 25,9 East.

LNB

In order to receive Es'hail-2, a regular Ku-band satellite TV LNB can be used.
Preferred is a PLL-based model for better frequency stability.

Older DRO-based ones drift in frequency make it more difficult for reception.
See this page for more details: https://wiki.batc.org.uk/Es%27hail-2_LNBs_and_Antennaes

Im using the single Goobay 67269 they cost about 5 euro max.

          

- Low Band: 10,7 ~ 11,7 GHz
- High Band: 11,7 ~ 12,75 GHz
- L.O. Low Band: 9,75 GHz
- L.O. High Band: 10,6 GHz
- IF- Low Band: 950 ~ 1950 MHz
- IF- High Band:1100 ~ 2150 MHz

SDR Radio


                                   

Any SDR radio should work fine on Es'hail-2 for reception E4000 Terratec.
And Adalm-Pluto are in use.



And a coax sat splitter to feed both SDR Radio's.

Bias-Tee

Because a LNB uses 13/18 Volt to make H/V polarized switching possible, powered from the satellite receiver normally.
A Bias-Tee is needed, there are a few ways to achieve this from DIY or Internet buying.

It is also possible to use a (old) Satellite receiver to act as a Bias-Tee.



Any (FTA) DVB-S Digital sat-receiver will work as long it has a separate LNB-Output.
Which can be connected to the SDR-Radio or Split-ted to feed 2 SDR radio's.

The Narrow Band of Es’hail-2 Transponder is vertical, so to get signal on this part of the band a channel with vertical polarization is needed.
It does not matter if there is any actual signal on the pre programmed channel frequency only the switch of polarization matters.
Same for the Wide Band as it is Horizontal Polarized.

Point Dish to Es’hail-2

There are several ways to find Es’hail-2 in the sky, dishpointer has a good website and app.
Es’hail-2 is positioned at 25,9 Degrees East.

Together with Badr 4 - 7 and Es’hail-1, roughly between two Digital TV Satellites Astra 3B and Astra 2E/F and G at 28,2 Degrees East.
Which make it a lot easier to find with a satellite receiver or just only the SDR looking for the satellite beacon frequency looking like this.

Using any (FTA) DVB-S Digital sat-receiver will work.
25,9 East position carries also DVB TV Channels but they are broadcasted at a different beam with a smaller footprint, only very big dishes can receive outside the footprint.
However both beacon frequencies from Es’hail-1 and 2 are quite strong at 10706 V and 11205 V.

Let the satellite receiver scan Astra 28.2 East Transponder 44 ITV1 London 10.758 V DVB-S QPSK Sr:22000 Fec 5/6.
And Astra 28.2 East Transponder 41 Channel 4 107.14 H DVB-s QPSK Sr:22000 Fec 5/6
 
Use the details from Dishpointer to align the dish and swing around until you got picture on ITV1 it should be FTA.

Connect LNB-out from the satellite receiver into the SDR.
Tune in to 740MHz in SDR#

Just turn the dish a little to the right (when standing behind the dish).



And the Narrow Band SSB signals and beacons should be visible in SDR#.

For wide band tune the satellite receiver in to Channel 4 Transponder 41.
Now try to find the DATV Beacon on 10.4915.



DATV Beacon on RTL-SDR E4000



DATV Beacon on Pluto-SDR

It look like a sort of hump of signal, should be visible around 741MHz in SDR#.
Align until the max signal is received.



Es’hail-2 Footprint

Narrow Band Transponder

The Narrow Band on Es’hail-2 (QO-100) is a vertical polarized linear transponder.
With Downlink on 10489.550 - 10489.800 MHz.

Modulation is USB and image below shows what modes are allowed and how they are specified:
 
There are a few WebSDR available to see the Narrow band Live in action:

Official Qatar-OSCAR 100 Narrowband WebSDR 

IS0GRB QO-100 (Es'Hail-2) WebSDR receiver

Es'HailSat-2 (QO-100) WEBSDR - Brazil

OK1PHU Qo-100 NB WebSDR

Software

SDR Console is by far the best operating SDR software for Narrow Band mode.



With ability to use drift control for PLL Based LNB without modification.



SDR Console receiving KG-STV and SSTV on Es’hail-2 (QO-100) Narrow Band Transponder.

Some of the very popular modes used on Narrow Band SSB are:
KG-STV, SSTV, EasyPal, AX-25 Packet Radio, FreeDV and many more.



With a simple modification SDR# can be used for the Pluto-SDR:
Analog Devices ADALM-PlutoSDR driver for SDR#

However there is no drift correction (plugin) available!

Es-Hail Beacon Tracker Linux

GNU Radio flowgraph for receiving the Geostationary QO-100 / Es'hailsat-2 narrowband amateur transponder.
Performing phaselocking to the PSK400 beacon for automatic LNB drift correction.

Usage:
Create new fifo object - execute mkfifo /tmp/gqrx_fifo command in linux terminal.

Start gnuradio-companion, open beacontrack_gqrx.grc flow and run it using "Play" button or F6 key.
Start GQRX and select Complex Sampled (IQ) File as input device.


 
Provide the following settings: GQRX configuration
Start reception in GQRX using "Play" button or ctrl-D.

You should see both gqrx and grc workflow running.
beacontrack_gqrx_rtlsdr.grc
Input osmocom block is using rtl_tcp=0 as input string.
Sample rate is 1.5M with 4x decimation.

Use Frequency adjustment slider to move upper beacon about 110 kHz above center frequency.



Download Scripts and flowgraphs for the Es'hailsat-2 amateur transponder.

Telemetry beacon

There are 3 decodeable beacons CW Lower, PSK Middle and CW Higher Beacon.



The middle beacon displays telemetry and other info, which is not directly broadcasted from the satellite but from the AMSAT Groundstation instead.



Phase 3D (AO-40) Decoder from IZ8BLY works great on the QO-100 beacon aslo in Linux Wine.



Another Decoder AO40Rcv displaying more info.



Works in Linux Wine but does not display any text as a workaround check but log Options!

Decoding the QO-100 beacon with GNU-Radio gr-satellites

Both CW Beacons can be used with FlDigi

Wide Band Transponder

The Wide Band on Es’hail-2 (QO-100) is a horizontal polarized linear transponder.
With Downlink on 10491.000 - 10499.000 MHz.



DATV beacon parameters are center 10.4915, DVB-S2, QPSK 4/5 FEC, 0.25 RollOff, C/N=4,6dB, 2,383 MBit
This requires a C/N of 4.6 dB for decoding, but the beacon power density has been increased so that reception should still be possible on dishes of 80 cm and larger.

Bandplan below shows what modes are allowed and how they are specified:





Official Qatar-OSCAR 100 Wideband Spectrum Monitor

More about receiving Oscar 100 DATV signals.

Software DVB-S Demodulator

Over on the Amsat-DL forums user Markro92 is developing a realtime Windows DVB-S demodulator with GUI.
The demodulator works with the RTL-SDR, Airspy, HackRF, SDRplay and PlutoSDR.

It can demodulate DVB-S and S2 signals with very low symbolrate on the Wideband Transponder.
So you do not need a modified lnb or modified satellite receiver.
Of course you can also see the amateur tv streams which people uplink their self.

To see if there is any stream active one can visit the Official Qatar-OSCAR 100 Wideband Spectrum Monitor
And the stream the info is displayed which parameters in use symbol rate and mode dvbs(2) so you can adjust these settings in the Demodulator program.

Example DATV Promo beacon video on 10.4915, DVB-S2, QPSK, Sr:1500,  4/5 FEC.



1: Select SDR and start Device.
2: Select correct Frequency.
3: Tune into the middle of the stream, every little bit counts with the bandwidth from the SDR.
4: Select correct Symbolrate.
5: Select mueller and muller filter (for all lower symbolrates use the gardner filter).
6: Check box Carrier recovery Enabled, if you do this right, you should see more symbols inside the IQ plot.

Play with the Carrier Recovery Loop Gain and Damping Sliders until you can see a circle inside the IQ plot and set appropriate Baseband-Gain Settings without overdriving.
A valid QPSK constellation should also appear.
For weak signals, increasing gain and damping can be necessary.

If you see the QPSK constellation (4 dots), you can decrease the gain again.
Keep also your eyes on actual symbolrate (right under).
When symbolrate is going higher, slightly go 1 symbolrate up and down, the symbolrate must stay around 1500 or the chosen value.

MPEG-TS output is localhost, UDP at port 8888.
Open VLC and insert Network Stream: udp://@:8888



Or make Batch file with content:
"C:\Program Files\VideoLAN\VLC\vlc.exe" "udp://@:8888"

The latest version of the software will always be always available at http://v.1337team.tk/dvb-s_gui_amsat.zip

Custom DATV Firmware for the Pluto

The guys from batc.org.uk came up with a excellent Wiki about Flashing Custom Firmware for the Pluto SDR developed by F5OEO.
Offering a simple way to generate DATV DVB-S(2).
There is a video stream analyzer included with which you can easy adjust your video bitrate from OBS-Project for the correspending SR.

The following parameters can be used for streaming:

URL : rtmp://192.168.2.1:7272/,437,DVBS2,QPSK,2000,23,Pass : ,Happysat,

Default URL from Pluto
Frequency in MHz: 437
Mode (DVBS/DVBS2): DVBS2
Constellation (QPSK,8PSK,16APSK): QPSK (only QPSK is valid in DVBS)
SymbolRate in KS (33-2000): 2000
FEC (12,23,34,67,78...): 23
CALLSIGN: Happysat

Change to your needs.

It is done in OBS by setting a RTMP Stream pointing to the Pluto-SDR.
In OBS Settings/Stream:



Every SR needs a different video bitrate for best results, rule of thumb is to set the video bitrate at about 75% of the SR.
And reduce the audio bitrate to the minimum, 32kbps with OBS, framerate 25, this can be done in output.



The sources box bottom left, you can add a input source this can be anything a image or live video streams ect.
In the control box select Studio Mode, and press streaming.

A QPSK carrier will be generated at 437MHz in about 5 seconds.
Which is perfectly receivable in the DVB-S Demodulator Program.



Usefull Links


SSTV RX Gallery

Qo-100 Realtime Live Decoding with LeanDVB

Setting up your DBV-S2 Decoder for QO-100 (Eshail-2) on Linux